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Glossary of Various Internet, Graphic Development and Other Geeky Terms

 

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Access
Refers to the database program "Microsoft Access", also called Jet Database.


Address Record
Address records assign a hostname (e.g.: support.yourdomain.com) to a specific IP address (e.g.: 123.123.123.123).


ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
A technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines (POTS). ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate). ADSL requires a special ADSL modem.


alias
An alias is an e-mail address that forwards its mail to a specified mailbox, masking the true name of the mailbox in which the mail is actually received. For example, Sales@JoesDomain.com could be an alias for Joe1234@aol.com.


analog
This word is often used to denote the opposite of digital. Loosely, it means the measuring of data on more physical grounds, as opposed to the more electronic or "wired" state of digital.


Anonymous
The means that allow a person to connect to an FTP site, search through available files, and download any file, document or program without having to establish a userID and/or password on the system where the material resides. See Also: Anonymous FTP


animated GIF
Part of the GIF89a specification that supports multiple images. This allows the streaming of data and coordinates the display of each frame in a sequential manner. (Also see GIF89a.)


anonymous
The means that allow a person to connect to an FTP site, search through available files, and download any file, document or program without having to establish a userID and/or password on the system where the material resides. See Also: anonymous FTP


anonymous FTP
An Internet File Transfer Protocol (FTP) option that allows you to let others onto your Web site to download files that you have made available, without first establishing an account. Most FTP servers are set up to allow a limited amount of anonymous FTP users to log in at the same time, and only provide access to designated files.


anti-aliasing
The rendering of hard-edged objects so they blend smoothly into the background.
A technique for reducing the jagged appearance of bitmapped images by inserting pixels to better blend the boundaries between adjacent colors.
A technique for merging object-oriented art into bitmaps.


Apache
A public-domain web server developed by a loosely-knit group of programmers. The first version of Apache, based on the NCSA httpd web server, was developed in 1995. Because it was developed from existing NCSA code plus various patches, it was called a patchy server—hence the name Apache Server.B2B: Business to business
    By some estimates, it is used to host more than 50% of all Web sites in the world. Originally written for UNIX, but there are now versions that run under OS/2, Windows and other platforms.


applet
A mini-program that can be downloaded quickly and used by any computer equipped with a Java- or ActiveX-capable browser. Applets carry their own software players.


ARPANET (Advanced Projects Agency Network)
The precursor to the Internet. Developed in the late 60's and early 70's by the U.S. Department of Defense as an experiment in wide-area-networking that would survive a nuclear war.


ASP
A specification for a dynamically created web page with an .ASP extension that utilizes ActiveX scripting—usually VB Script or Jscript code. When a browser requests an ASP page, the web server generates a page with HTML code and sends it back to the browser. So ASP pages are similar to CGI scripts, but they enable Visual Basic programmers to work with familiar tools.


autoresponder
An e-mail that is automatically sent in reply to any e-mail received in a specified mailbox. Also known as a vacation message.


B2B
Business to business


B2C
Business to consumer


backbone
The Internet's high-speed data highway that serves as a major access point to which other networks can connect.


bandwidth
1. A data transmission rate; the maximum amount of information (bits/second) that can be transmitted along a channel.

1. The range of frequencies a transmission line or channel can carry; the higher the frequency the higher the bandwidth and the greater the information-carrying capacity of a channel. For a digital channel this is defined in bits per second or BPS. For an analog channel it is dependent on the type and method of modulation used to encode the data.

2. Expressed in cycles per second (hertz), the amount of information that can flow through a channel. On the less technical side bandwidth is used to measure the amount of time it takes for a Web page to fully load. Internet users occasionally refer to larger graphics on Web pages as "bandwidth hogs" - the use of the term bandwidth in this case isn't quite accurate, but what it means is that the graphic is loading slowly due to its large file size.


banner ad rotator
Displays alternating banner ads and includes an administration area with the ability to add, edit and delete banners from the rotation list.


baseline
The imaginary line on which non descending text letters sit.


BBS (bulletin board system)
An electronic message center. The Bulletin Board System (BBS) allows you to dial in with a modem, review messages left by others, and leave your own message if you want. Bulletin boards are a particularly good place to find free or inexpensive software products. Most bulletin boards serve specific interest groups.


binary
Any downloadable file that doesn't simply contain human-readable, ASCII text. Typically it refers to a runnable program available for downloading, but it can also refer to pictures, sounds or movies, among others. Most Usenet newsgroups have subgroups specifically for binaries; a posting in comp.sys.mac.comm might announce that a program is available for downloading, but the binary (the file itself) would be found in comp.sys.mac.comm.binaries. Newsgroups such as alt.pictures.binaries contain files for download which are actually pictures. You will need a newsreader to download and decode these files.


bit
The smallest unit of computerized data, represented by a single-digit number in base-2--in other words, either a 1 or a zero. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits-per-second.


bleed
Layout, type or pictures that extend beyond the trim marks on a page. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins are referred to as 'bleed off'.


bitmapped graphics
Graphics images that are composed of discrete image elements called bits. Each element is assigned a specific color.


blueline
A printer's proof, actually blue on white paper.


BPS Bits-Per-Second
A measurement of the speed at which data is moved from one place to another.


broadband
Of, relating to, or having a wide band of electromagnetic frequencies.


browser
An application that enables the user to access World Wide Web pages by decoding the hypertext coded contents. Most browsers provide the capability to view web pages, copy and print the web page content, and to navigate internet to access servers containing the webpages.
    Browsers read "marked up" or coded pages (usually HTML but not always) that reside on servers and interpret the coding into what we see "rendered" as a Web page. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer are examples of Web browsers. The program you are using right now to view this information is called a browser.


browser compatibility
A term that compares the way a Web page looks on one WWW browser as opposed to another. Usually this is done with Microsoft Internet Explorer (MIE) and Netscape Navigator, but can also refer to cross platform compatibility (for example, the way a page renders or displays on a Windows system as opposed to a Mac). The reason these incompatibilities exist is due to the way a browser interprets the Web page's code (HTML). The differences are usually very slight, but they're enough to annoy some Web designers and sometimes even their clients to the point in which great time and energy is spent in making a web site compatible with any browser on any type of system. Browser compatibility is also used in conjunction with (and should not be confused with) the term browser support. See also cross browser cmpatibility.


browser support
This refers to the ability of a particular browser to even recognize and interpret certain HTML or other Web page codes. For example, Netscape Navigator 1.0 did not have the ability to render a page layout in frames. This feature did not come along until version 2.0, therefore it can be said that Navigator 1.0 did not "support" frames.


browser-safe colors
The 216 colors that are common to most computer platforms, operating systems and most web browsers.


byte
A set of Bits that represent a single character. Usually there are 8 Bits in a Byte.


cable modem
A modem attached to a coaxial cable television system. Cable modems can transmit data at 500 kilobytes a second, much faster than a typical computer modem that sends signals over telephone lines.


cache
A fast and temporary storage area that stores frequently accessed data or program instructions making them available at a faster data rate to the CPU.


camera ready
Artwork or pasted up material that is ready for reproduction.


CGI(Common Gateway Interface)
A web standard for extending the functionality of HTML pages. CGI enables interaction between the script contained within the HTML page and the web server in order to implement a certain function. CGI is a set of rules that describe how a web server communicates with another piece of software on the same machine, and how the other piece of software (the CGI program) communicates with the web server. Many scripting languages, such as Perl, follow the CGI standard. This allows you to develop more interactive sites, by making use of system features.


CGI-BIN
A directory on a server that "houses" all of the CGI programs. When you see this as a directory in your browser's URL window, it usually means you are either running or about to run a CGI program. The "binary" part refers to when many of the files placed in that directory were binary files. More recently, many of these files are text-based.
See Also: Common Gateway Interface (CGI)


client
A software program used to contact and obtain data from a server software program on another computer, often across a great distance.


CMYK
Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, Black) The subtractive primaries, or process colors, used in color printing. Black (K) is usually added to enhance color and to print a true black. See four color process.


CNAME (Canonical Name)
The Canonical Name resource record, CNAME, specifies an alias or nickname for the official, or canonical, host name. Alias records assign an alternate hostname to a specific hostname. Both hostnames point at whatever IP address the primary hostname is assigned to.


coated
Printing papers which after making have had a surface coating with clay etc, to give a smoother, more even finish with greater opacity.


co-location
Most often used to refer to having a server that belongs to one person or group physically located on an Internet-connected network that belongs to another person or group.


ColdFusion
A Rapid Application Development (RAD) system created by the Allaire Corporation of Cambridge, Mass, ColdFusion integrates browser, server and database technologies into Web applications. Cold Fusion Web pages include tags written in ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) that simplify integration with databases and avoid the use of more complex languages like C++ to create translating programs. ColdFusion is the industry's leading cross-platform Web application server. With ColdFusion, Web developers can quickly develop and deliver a new generation of large-volume, transaction-intensive Web applications for everything from e-commerce to business automation and more.


color proof
A representation of what the final printed composition will look like. The resolution and quality of different types of color can vary greatly.


color separations
The division of an image into its component colors for printing. Each color separation is a piece of negative or positive film. Four color or process separations result in 4 pieces of film (CMYK); Spot color separations result in 1 piece of film for each spot color.


comp
Comprehensive artwork used to present the general color and layout of a page. See proof.


configuration
A general-purpose computer term that refers to the way your computer's operating system is set up. It can also refer to the total combination of hardware components – central processing unit (CPU), video display device, keyboard and peripheral devices – that make up the computer system. The configuration is also at work in the software settings that allow various hardware components of a computer system to communicate with one another. A "vanilla" configuration is the standard "clean" and "no frills" version of a computer's configuration (no device drivers or extra settings). This is what a technician might set a system to when trying to troubleshoot a problem with a computer's hardware.


connectivity
The state of being connected to the Internet or some other type of computer network. On the Internet, if you lose your connectivity, you are no longer online and must redial into your ISP. When ISPs get many users signing on all at once, the connectivity tends to be poor. "What is your connectivity?" usually means what kind of speed does your Internet connection support, like 28.8 or T-1.


cookie
A piece of information about your computer, something you clicked on, and/or you (such as your username) that is stored in a text file on your hard drive. A server accesses this information when you connect to a Web site that wants to know this information. One common occurrence of a "handing out a cookie", would be when you as a user, log into a system through a Web site. After you enter in your username and password, your browser saves a text file that it calls upon for later access. This prevents you from having to log in again if you happen to leave the Web site and then return at a later time. Cookies are also used in the process of purchasing items on the Web. It is because of the cookie that "shopping cart" technology works. By saving in a text file the name, and other important information about an item a user "clicks" on as they move through a shopping Web site, a user can later go to an order form, and see all the items they selected, ready for quick and easy processing.


counter
Counts and displays the number of times a web page has been visited.


cron
A Unix command for scheduling jobs to be executed sometime in the future. A cron is normally used to schedule a job that is executed periodically – for example, to send out a notice every morning. It is also a daemon process, meaning that it runs continuously, waiting for specific events to occur.


crop marks
Lines printed showing the dimensions of the final printed page. These marks are used for final trimming.


cross browser compatibility
Refers to the capability of web-based software, HTML pages and other browser displays to run identically within different browsers, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Safari, Opera, etc. Also typically refers to the same degree of compatibility within various browser versions. This compatibility is usually associated with a baseline version of browsers on various platforms, such as version 3.x and beyond of MSIE or NS Navigator for Linux, Macintosh, Windows, etc. Web pages that have not been developed with corss browser compatibility in mind often do not look the same in all browsers (version 3.x and beyond) and sometimes will not even load or display at all in some browsers.


cross platform compatibility
Refers to the capability of software or hardware to run identically on different platforms. Many applications for Windows and the Macintosh, for example, now produce binary-compatible files, which means that users can switch from one platform to the other without converting their data to a new format.


CSS
(Cascading Style Sheets) A new feature being added to HTML that gives both website developers and users more control over how pages are displayed. With CSS, designers and users can create style sheets that define how different elements, such as headers and links, appear. These style sheets can then be applied to any web page.


counter
Counts and displays the number of times a web page has been visited.


CyberCash
A form of real-time credit card processing.


database
A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system.


data streaming
The capability to display data and images as it is being delivered before the entire transfer of information has been completed.


Dedicated Line
A telecommunications line that lets your computer have a direct, permanent connection to the Internet.


DHTML (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language)
"Dynamic HTML is a term used by some vendors to describe the combination of HTML, style sheets and scripts that allows documents to be animated." (W3Schools, www.w3schools.com)
    An extension of HTML giving greater control over the layout of page elements and the ability to have web pages which change and interact with the user without having to communicate with the server. DHTML was created by Microsoft and can be viewed in Internet Explorer 4.0 and Netscape Communicator 4.0; but, as usual, Microsoft and Netscape disagree on how DHTML should be implemented. The Document Object Model Group of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is developing standards for DHTML.


dial up
The process of initiating a switched connection through the network; when used as an adjective, this is a type of communication that is established by a switched-circuit connection.
    A basic type of Internet account that allows you to dial up an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) computer with a modem. These types of accounts usually have a UNIX or other command-line interface.


digest
A manner in which messages to a list server mailing list can be automatically consolidated into one email (the digest) and sent to the list subscribers periodically.


dither
Simulating gray tones by altering the size, arrangement or shape of background dots.


DLL (Dynamic Link Library)
A Windows platform file that is actually an executable mini-program itself that is NOT executed directly by a user but by a running program or application.


DNS (Domain Name System)
A database system that translates an IP address into a domain name. For example, a numeric IP address like 207.219.116.4 is converted into netlingo.com. The DNS is a static, hierarchical name service that uses TCP/IP hosts and is housed on a number of servers on the Internet. Basically, it maintains this database for figuring out and finding (or resolving) host names and IP addresses. This allows users to specify remote computers by host names rather than numerical IP addresses. Also referred to as Domain Name Service and Domain Name Server.


domain name or domain
The unique name identifying a Web site, located at the right of the @ sign in an Internet address. Domain names always have two or more parts, separated by dots, as in www.yourdomain.com. Domains are tied to name servers, which direct to which IP address the domain should point. Any server can have multiple domain names, but a domain name can only point to one server.


domain registration
Our partnership with InterNIC allows us to register or transfer your domain with them seamlessly. Therefore, we charge no additional fee for InterNIC registration or transfers. However, be aware that you are still responsible for the cost of domain registration with InterNIC, which currently is $70 for two year, $150 for five year, and $250 for 10 year registrations.
See Also: domain, InterNIC


DNS (Domain Name Service)
A general-purpose distributed, replicated, data query service chiefly used on the internet for translating host names into internet addresses. Also, the style of host name used on the internet, though such a name is properly called a fully qualified domain name. DNS can be configured to use a sequence of name servers, based on the domains in the name being looked for, until a match is found.


dpi (dots per inch)
A measure of output resolution produced by printers, imagesetters, or monitors.


DRAM (Dynamic Random-Access Memory
A memory chip contained on such devices as video and sound cards. DRAM is "dynamic" because the chip contains an electrical charge (as opposed to SRAM, see below). The electrical charge will die out eventually so it must refresh its memory regularly, which it does automatically from your CPU. The only reason you need to know about DRAM is because it is related to access time and video cards, etc.


DSL (Digital Subscriber Lines)
Refers collectively to all types of DSL, the two main categories being ADSL and SDSL. Two other types of xDSL technologies are High-data-rate DSL (HDSL) and Symmetric DSL (SDSL). DSL technologies use sophisticated modulation schemes to pack data onto copper wires. They are sometimes referred to as last-mile technologies because they are used only for connections from a telephone switching station to a home or office, not between switching stations.


DSN (Data Source Name)
Data source names are used to access a database. Customers can create DSN's via their administration page.


duotone
A two color halftone reproduction from a one-color photograph.


dynamic content
Information on a Web site or Web page that changes often, usually daily and/or each time a user reloads or returns to the page. Content that is also structured based on user input. For example, when you search on some keywords on a search engine, the resulting page you get is a "dynamic" page, meaning the information was created based on the words you typed into the form on the previous page.
    Dynamic Web sites are usually driven by Web application environments such as Microsoft ASP or Allaire's ColdFusion, and the content is taken from a database each time a page request is made.


dynamic SQL
Creates queries based on user data, environment variables, and previously returned query results. Dynamic SQL can also increase processing efficiency by executing multiple queries and sending them to multiple databases from a single browser request.


ecash
Developed by DigiCash and the Mark Twain Bank, ecash is the ability to use real money in an electronic purchasing system over the World Wide Web. The process involves you sending a check to Mark Twain Bank which in turn sends you software that gives you access to the ecash Mint where you draw funds to your hard drive for use when purchasing goods and services on the Internet.


e-commerce (electronic commerce)
Quite simply, it means conducting business online. In the traditional sense of selling goods, it is possible to do this electronically because of certain software programs that run the main functions of an e-commerce Web site, such as product display, online ordering, and inventory management. The software, which works in conjunction with online payment systems to process payments, resides on a commerce server.
    The definition of e-commerce has expanded to include all kinds of commercial online transactions, like selling products via credit cards, charging for advertising on a high-traffic Web site, or trading stock in your brokerage account -- practically any way a company can derive revenue online is thought of as e-commerce.


email (electronic mail)
E-mail is the sending and receiving of messages, usually text, from one computer to another using e-mail software.
See Also: POP3, SMTP


encryption
A way of making data unreadable to everyone except the receiver, encryption is an increasingly common way of sending credit card numbers over the Internet when conducting commercial transactions.
See Also: PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)


EPS (Enapsulated PostScript)
A file format used to transfer PostScript image information from one program to another. The preferred file format for saving images, as it is resolution independent, as opposed to TIFF.


ethernet
A widespread networking scheme rated at 10 Mbs (megabits per second).


extensions
The characters after the dot in a file's name are considered its extension. This is used to determine how the file is formatted and viewed. For example a file named netlingo.html means that the file is coded in HTML and therefore must be viewed with a compatible program such as a Web browser in order to see it properly. On the Internet you will come across many different file extensions such as .dcr, .mov, .avi and .au. In order to properly handle these files your browser must be configured to recognize these extensions.


FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
Documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject.


FastCGI
An open extension to CGI that provides higher performance by reusing processes to handle multiple requests.


file extension
The group of letters after a period or "dot" in a file name is called the file extension. This extension refers to the type of file it is, for example, if the filename is readme.txt, the extension txt denotes this is a text file and can be viewed using a text editor such as Notepad or Simple Text. Operating systems such as MAC OS or Windows 95 will refer to a file's extension when choosing which application to launch when a user clicks on a particular file name.


firewall
A device that protects a private network from the public part, or a computer set up to monitor traffic between an Internet site and the Internet. A firewall is designed to increase a server's security by keeping unauthorized outsiders from tampering with a computer system.


Flash
Macromedia Flash is the solution for producing and delivering high-impact websites, as well as resizable and extremely compact full-screen navigation interfaces, technical illustrations, long-form animations, and other dazzling site effects. Graphics and animations anti-alias and scale based on the viewers screen size, providing high-quality viewing.


four color process
Printing in full color using four color separation negatives — cyan, magenta, yellow and black. When blended, these four colors reproduce only a small portion of all the colors found in nature, but they can reproduce the widest range with the fewest inks when printing.


FrontPage compatibility
Allows you to edit your site using Microsoft FrontPage or Visual InterDev. Also allows you to make use of special built-in features that use FrontPage Extensions.


FrontPage extensions
Server add-ons that allows you to make use of pre-defined functions such as a hit counter, Java buttons and form validation.


FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Common procedure used for downloading and uploading files over the Internet. With FTP you can log in to another Internet site and transfer (send or receive) files. Some sites have public file archives that you can access by using FTP with the account name "anonymous" and your e-mail address as the password. This type of access is called anonymous FTP. Macintosh users use a program called Fetch; one of the FTP programs for Windows is called WS-FTP.


gateway
A computer system for exchanging information across incompatible networks that use different protocols. For example, many commercial services have e-mail gateways for sending messages to Internet addresses.


GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
A bitmapped color graphics file format. GIF is commonly used on the web to take advantage of its highly efficient data compression format.


GIF89a
A type of GIF file that supports transparency and multi-blocks. Multi-blocks create the illusion of animation. GIF89a files are sometimes referred to as "transparant GIF's" or "animated GIF's."


gigabyte
1000 (or 1024) Megabytes


grayscale
A range of luminance values for evaluating shading through white to black. Frequently used in discussions about scanners as a measure of their ability to capture halftone images. Basically the more levels the better but with correspondingly larger memory requirements.


guest book
A simple guest book allows visitors to leave their name and a brief message on your site.


GUI (Graphical User Interface)
Pronounced gooey. A generic name for any computer interface that uses graphics, windows, or a pointing device instead of a purely character-mode interface. GUI were first developed by Xerox at Xerox PARC in Palo Alto, California, and first put into use with the MacOS.


HDML (Hand-Held Device Markup Language)
The HTML for hand-held devices like Palm Pilots and PDAs.
    A simple language used to define hypertext-like content and applications for hand-held devices with small displays. HDML is designed to leverage the infrastructure and protocols of the World Wide Web while providing an efficient markup language for wireless and other handheld devices. Congruent with the capabilities and limitations of many handheld devices, HDML's focus goes beyond presentation and layout. HDML provides an explicit navigation model, which does not rely upon the visual context, required of HTML. As such, HDML offers an efficient means of providing content via the WWW infrastructure to handheld devices such as cellular phones, pagers, and wireless PDA's.


hexadecimal
The hexadecimal (base 16) number system used for web page design consists of 16 unique symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F. For example, the decimal number 15 is equal to the hexadecimal number F. In HTML, an RGB color can be designated by RRGGBB with the first two numerals representing the amount of red, the second two the amount of green, and the last two the amount of blue.


hit
1. A term used to describe the accessing of a World Wide Web page. When a user "points" a browser to a Web site URL, the moment that user requests the HTML document is called a "hit". Hits are used to determine how popular a Web site is and plays an important role in assessing how much it costs to advertise on a particular Web page. Some Web site authors and developers use counters on their page to let people know how many other users (hits) have accessed that particular page that they are on.
    There has been great debate as to the validity of the "number of hits" pages or sites are said to receive due in part to Web servers that record hits not only on accesses to HTML pages but also the graphics, which are embedded in them.

2. Prior to 1994, the access of a Web file by a user on a server. Every element of a requested page (graphics, multimedia, etc.), including the HTML file itself, is counted as a hit. For example, if a Web page contains five graphics, then accessing the page generates six hits. Hits used to be a method of determining the amount of traffic a Web site received, but because businesses needed to isolate the exact number of times a page was requested in order to charge for advertising, this method was tossed aside in lieu counting the actual HTML page requests.


host
Any computer that can function as the beginning and end point of data transfers. An Internet host has a unique Internet address (IP address) and a unique domain or host name.


hotlist
A list of frequently accessed World Wide Web sites. Usually the names of the sites are coded as hypertext, making them links. In this case the user must simply click on the name of the site in order to go there. (Yahoo! started as one major hotlist.)


Hotmail
Hotmail is a Web-based free e-mail system which adheres to the universal HTTP standard. It is based on the premise that e-mail access should be easy and possible from any computer connected to the World Wide Web. Web-based e-mail programs use a Web browser as an e-mail program, providing a globally retrievable form of e-mail.


HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
HTML is the lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML, and can be created and processed in a wide range of tools from simple plain text editors to sophisticated WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) authoring tools. HTML uses tags like <h1> and </h1> to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links and more.


HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
The protocol that tells the server what to send to the client, so the client can view Web pages, FTP sites, or other areas of the net.


HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)
A type of server software that provides the ability for secure transactions to take place on the World Wide Web. If a Web site is running on a HTTPS server you can type in HTTPS instead of HTTP in the URL section of your browser to enter into the "secured mode". Windows NT HTTPS and Netscape Commerce server software support this protocol.


hyperlink
Web site text that can be clicked on with a mouse, that in turn will take you to another Web page or a different area of the same Web page. Hyperlinks are created (coded) in HTML. They are also used to load multimedia files such as AVI movies and AU sound files.


hypertext
A system of writing and displaying text that enables the text to be linked in multiple ways, to be available at several levels of detail, and to contain links to related documents. The term was coined by Ted Nelson to refer to a nonlinear system of information browsing and retrieval that contains associative links to other related documents. The World Wide Web uses hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) to provide links to pages and multimedia files.


IIS (Internet Information Server)
Microsoft's Web server that runs on Windows NT platforms. IIS comes bundled with Windows NT 4.0; Because IIS is tightly integrated with the operating system, it is relatively easy to administer. Currently IIS is available only for the Windows NT platform, whereas Netscape's Web servers run on all major platforms, including Windows NT, OS/2 and UNIX.


Internet backbone
This fast network spanning the world from one major metropolitan area to another is provided by a handful of national Internet service providers (ISPs). These companies and organizations use connections running at approximately 45 MB per second (T3 lines) linked up at specified interconnection points called national access points. Local ISPs connect to this backbone through routers so that data can be carried though the backbone to its destination.


imagemap
Portions of images containing hypertext links. Using a mouse-based web client such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer, the user clicks on different parts of a mapped image to activate different hypertext links.


InterNIC (Internet Network Information Center)
A repository of information about the Internet. It is divided into two parts: directory services, which is run by AT&T in New Jersey, and registration services, which is run by Network Solutions in Virginia. It is funded partially by the National Science Foundation and partially by fees that are charged to register Internet domains. This is the place where you register URLs or Domain Names like www.netlingo.com and it basically involves a fee and several forms (some very technical), to set up.


IP (Internet Protocol)
The primary network layer protocol of the TCP/IP protocol suite, IP is probably the most widely used network protocol in the world. IP is responsible for addressing and sending TCP packets over the network.
    Sometimes called a dotted quad, the IP address is a unique number used to identify a machine on the Internet. The number consists of four numbers between 0 and 255 separated by dots (208.233.88.55). Every machine on the Internet must have it's own IP address. Domains are tied to name servers, which direct to which IP address the domain should point. See Also: Domain, Protocol


IP Address
Every computer on the internet is identified by a unique number called an IP address. Each time you connect to the internet your machine is assigned an IP address. If you have a static IP address you get the same number each time you connect. If you have a dynamic IP address, a number is assigned from a pool of addresses maintained by your ISP (Internet Service Provider) on a first-come basis. Thus you can get a different IP address each time you connect.


Internet security
Information traveling on the Internet usually takes a circuitous route through several intermediary computers to reach any destination computer. The actual route your information takes to reach its destination is not under your control. As your information travels on Internet computers, any intermediary computer has the potential to eavesdrop and make copies. An intermediary computer could even deceive you and exchange information with you by misrepresenting itself as your intended destination. These possibilities make the transfer of confidential information such as passwords or credit card numbers susceptible to abuse. This is where Internet security comes in and why it has become a rapidly growing concern for all who use the Internet.
See also: SSL - Secure Sockets Layer


Intranet
A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. As the Internet has become more popular, many of the tools used on the Internet are being used in private networks, often in the form of Web servers that are available only to employees. Note that an "Intranet" may not actually be an Internet; it may simply be a network.


ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN is a set of communications standards allowing a single wire or optical fiber to carry voice, digital network services and video. ISDN is intended to eventually replace the plain old telephone system (POTS). ISDN was first published as one of the 1984 ITU-T Red Book recommendations; the 1988 Blue Book recommendations added many new features. ISDN uses mostly existing Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) switches and wiring, upgraded so that the basic "call" is a 64 kilobits per second, all-digital end-to-end channel. Packet and frame modes are also provided in some places.


ISP (Internet Service Provider)
Any organization that will provide internet access to a consumer, usually for a fee.


Java
Developed by Sun Microsystems, Java is a programming language specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called "Applets"), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. Java is a simple, robust, object-oriented, platform-independent multi-threaded, dynamic general-purpose programming environment. It is best for creating applets and applications for the Internet, intranets and any other complex, distributed network.


Java applet
A little application written in Java language which can be embedded in an HTML document. On the World Wide Web, Java applets can be executed by Netscape Navigator or Sun's HotJava browser.


JavaScript
A scripting language developed by Netscape that enables you to extend the capabilities of HTML.


jet data engine
Short for joint engine technology, the database engine used by Microsoft Office and Visual Basic.


JPEG or JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
A highly compressed graphics format designed to handle computer images of high resolution photographs as efficiently as possible.


kerning
The adjustment of spacing between certain letter pairs, A and V for example, to obtain a more pleasing appearance. Not all DTP systems can achieve this.


key words/key phrases
Words or sets of words used to improve ranking in search engines when those words are phrases are entered by a user. For example, if a person does a search for "pet supplies", while a person who has the key word "pet" in his page, the page with the key phrase "pet supplies" will be ranked higher in the search results.


knockout
A shape or object printed by eliminating (knocking out) all background colors. Contrast to overprinting.


LAN (Local Area Network)
A network that connects computers in a small, pre-determined area (like a room, building or set of buildings). LANs can also be connected to each other via telephone lines and radio waves. Workstations and personal computers in an office are commonly connected to each other with a LAN. This allows them to have send/receive files and/or have access to the files and data. Each computer connected to a LAN is called a node.


leased line
Refers to a phone line (connection) that is rented for exclusive 24-hour/7-days-a-week use from one computer or network to another, or for constant access to the Internet. Also called a dedicated line.


link
Text and/or an image area on a Web page that a user can click on to connect to or reference another document. Commonly, links connect two Web pages or Web sites. They can also reference a different part of the same document, linking to a file which will download to your computer or triggering the launching of an external or helper application which will then process the clicked-on file.


lead or leading
Space added between lines of type to space out text and provide visual separation of the lines. Measured in points or fractions therof. Named after the strips of lead which used to be inserted between lines of metal type.


links
Words or images contained in a hypertext (HTML) document. Text links are generally underlined and may appear in a different color from the rest of the text. When clicked on, the link will transport the viewer to a different location on the website or the internet.


Linux
A freely-distributable implementation of UNIX that runs on a number of hardware platforms, including Intel and Motorola microprocessors. It was developed mainly by Linus Torvalds. Because it's free, and because it runs on many platforms, including PCs, Macintoshes and Amigas, Linux has become extremely popular over the last couple years.


log file access
Raw log files are used to track the hits to your website. You can access them from your root directory.


LPI (lines per inch)
A measure of the frequency of a halftone screen (usually ranging from 55-200). Originally, halftones were made by placing an etched glass plate over an image and exposing it to produce dots. Lpi refers to the frequency of the horizontal and vertical lines.


mail list
A system that allows people to send e-mail to one address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all of the other subscribers to the mail list.


mailbox
The directory on a host computer where your e-mail message are stored. With some systems you can choose between keeping saved messages on the server or on your local computer.


megabyte
A million bytes.


masthead
Details of publisher and editorial staff usually printed on the contents page.


message board
An electronic message center (also called a bulletin board); part of the Bulletin Board System (BBS). Message boards are accessed by dialing in with a modem; once there one may review messages left by others or leave a message. Bulletin boards are a particularly good place to find free or inexpensive software products. Most bulletin boards serve specific interest groups.


meta
Meta information means "information about information." In HTML, meta tags describe the content of the document in which they're written. Meta tags have two possible attributes: <META HTTP-EQUIV="name" CONTENT="content"> and <META NAME="name" CONTENT="content">. Meta tags with an HTTP-EQUIV attribute are analogous to HTTP headers that can control the action of browsers. Meta tags with a NAME attribute are used primarily by indexing and searching tools. These tools can gather meta information in order to sort and classify Web pages.


meta tag
An optional HTML tag that is used to specify information about a Web document. Some search engines such as AltaVista use "spiders" to index Web pages. These spiders read the information contained within a page's META tag. So in theory, an HTML or Web page author has the ability to control how there site is indexed by search engines and how and when it will come up on a user's search.<

The META tag can also be used to specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to "jump" to after a certain amount of time. This is known as Client-Pull. What this means, is a Web page author can control the amount of time a Web page is up on the screen as well as where the browser will go next. Here's a look at the syntax for search engine indexing: <html> <head><title></title> <meta name="keywords" content="web stuff"> </head> </html>

Here's a look at the syntax for Client Pull: <html> <head><title></title> <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="30; url=meta2.html"> </head> </html> this will "refresh" or change to the URL specified in 30 seconds.


MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
A protocol for Internet e-mail that enables the transmission of nontextual data such as graphics, audio, video and other binary types of files. An e-mail program such as Eudora is said to be "MIME Compliant" if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into text - although the resulting text is not really readable.
    Besides e-mail software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web servers to identify the files they are sending to Web clients. In this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the browsers' list of pairs of MIME-types and appropriate software for handling each type.


mirror
A server that provides copies of the same files as another server. Some servers are so popular that other servers have been set up to mirror them and to spread the load on to more than one site. Many international sites have mirrors set up in other countries to allow quicker access for their international users.


modem (modulator-demodulator)
A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans. Generally there are 3 types of modems: external, PC Card and internal.


mosaic
Mosaic is the common name of a World Wide Web multimedia browser program developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) in Urbana-Champaign, Ill. It was the first Web browser that used the same interface for Macintosh, Windows and UNIX, and started the popularity of the Web. The official, copyrighted name of the program is NCSA Mosaic. The source code for Mosaic has been licensed by several companies, most notably, Netscape.


MX Record (Mail Exchange Record)
Mail Server records designate the mailservers that will handle mail for your domain. If you have more than one mailserver, MX records also specify the order in which the mailservers will be used as primary, backup, etc.


navigate
To move around on the World Wide Web by following hypertext paths from document to document on different computers.


netiquette
Contraction of Internet etiquette, the etiquette guidelines for posting messages to online services, and particularly Internet newsgroups. Netiquette covers not only rules to maintain civility in discussions (i.e., avoiding flames), but also special guidelines unique to the electronic nature of forum messages. For example, netiquette advises users to use simple formats because complex formatting may not appear correctly for all readers. In most cases, netiquette is enforced by fellow users who will vociferously object if you break a rule of netiquette.


Netscape Navigator
A highly popular World Wide Web browser. The program allows for Gopher, FTP, and Telnet access as well as e-mail and newsgroup retrieval and management. Many companies use Netscape server software to create Web pages and are therefore written to be best displayed using Netscape Navigator. The program is available for all platforms and is especially adept at displaying graphics.


network
Two or more computers that are connected. The most common types of networks are:
  • LAN - Local Area Network The computers are near each other, in the same office space, room or building
  • WAN - Wide Area Network The computers are at different geographic locations and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.


newsgroup
Same as forum, an on-line discussion group. On the Internet, there are literally thousands of newsgroups covering every conceivable interest. To view and post messages to a newsgroup, you need a newsreader, a program that runs on your computer and connects you to a news server on the Internet.


NIC (Networked Information Center)
An office that handles information for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is the InterNIC, which is where new domain names are registered.


NOC (Network Operations Center)
Responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Internet's component networks.


NT
A Windows NT (New Technologies) computer or server.


ODBC connectivity
A standard database access method developed by Microsoft. The goal of ODBC is to make it possible to access any data from any application, regardless of which database management system (DBMS) is handling the data. ODBC manages this by inserting a middle layer, called a database driver, between an application and the DBMS. The purpose of this layer is to translate the application's data queries into commands that the DBMS understands. For this to work, both the application and the DBMS must be ODBC-compliant — that is, the application must be capable of issuing ODBC commands and the DBMS must be capable of responding to them. Since version 2.0, the standard supports SAG SQL.

Two types of ODBC connections are as follows:
  • Jet Data Engine: This connection allows ODBC-compliant databases such as Microsoft Access, Foxpro, D-Base and others.
  • SQL Server: This allows ODBC connection via TCP/IP to a Microsoft SQL server.


OC (Optical Center)
Optical Carrier used to specify the speed of fiber optic networks conforming to the SONET standard.


OC-12
622.08 Mbps or 336 T-1's


OC-48
2.488 Mbps


OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
A special kind of scanner which provides a means of reading printed characters on documents and converting them into digital codes that can be read into a computer as actual text rather than just a picture.


OLE
Abbreviation of Object Linking and Embedding (pronounced as separate letters or as "oh-leh"). OLE is a compound document standard developed by Microsoft Corporation. It enables you to create objects with one application and then link or embed them in a second application. Embedded objects retain their original format and link to the application that created them.
    Support for OLE is built into the Windows and Macintosh operating systems. A competing compound document standard developed jointly by IBM, Apple Computer, and other computer firms is called OpenDoc.


opacity
Term used to describe the degree to which paper will show print through.


orphan
Line of type on its own at the top or bottom of a page.


overprinting
Printing over an area already printed. Contrast with knockout.


packet
A unit of data sent across a network. Packet is a generic term used to describe a unit of data at any layer of the OSI protocol stack, but it is most correctly used to describe application layer data units (application protocol data units, APDUs).


packet switching
The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks; each chunk has the address of where it came from and where it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed to different routes by special machines along the way. This way many people can use the same lines at the same time.


Pantone
A registered name for an ink color matching system.


parallel port
A parallel interface for connecting an external device such as a printer. Most personal computers have both a parallel port and at least one serial port. On PCs, the parallel port uses a 25-pin connector (type DB-25) and is used to connect printers, computers and other devices that need relatively high bandwidth. It is often called a Centronics interface after the company that designed the original standard for parallel communication between a computer and printer. (The modern parallel interface is based on a design by Epson.)


parking (in regard to Internet domains)
When two or more domains point to the same IP Address.


password
A secret series of characters that enables a user to access a file, computer or program. On multi-user systems, each user must enter a password before the computer will respond to commands. The password helps ensure that unauthorized users do not access the computer. In addition, data files and programs may require a password.
    Ideally, the password should be something that nobody could guess. Most people choose a password that is easy to remember, such as their name or their initials. This is one reason it is relatively easy to break into most computer systems.


PDF (Portable Document Format)
A file type created by Adobe Systems, Inc. that allows fully formatted, high-resolution, PostScript documents to be easily transmitted across the internet and viewed on any computer that has Adobe Acrobat Reader software (a proprietary viewer is available for free at the Adobe site).
    Corporations that have invested in brand name identification use PDF to display the original look of their logos and advertising. Publishers can create a high-quality brochure and then "publish" it as is, without converting it to HTML. Anyone interested in presenting documents with the highest possible resolution or a complex layout might choose to use PDF. PDF files can be distributed via e-mail, web pages, CD-ROMs, online services and LANs. They can also contain hyperlinks, QuickTime® movies, and sound clips.


Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language)
A programming language developed by Larry Wall, especially designed for processing text. Because of its strong text processing abilities, Perl has become one of the most popular languages for writing CGI scripts. Perl is an interpretive language, which makes it easy to build and test simple programs.


PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)
A freeware program, developed by Philip Zimmermann, that allows a user to send e-mail messages to anyone in the world, in complete privacy. One can also send authentication with your messages so that the recipient can verify the source of the message. You can encrypt sensitive files on your computer so that the files remain private even if your computer and disks are stolen.


PHP
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor is a server-side, HTML-embedded scripting language used to create dynamic Web pages. In an HTML document, PHP script (similar syntax to that of Perl or C) is enclosed within special PHP tags. Because PHP is embedded within tags, the author can jump between HTML and PHP (similar to ASP and Cold Fusion) instead of having to rely on heavy amounts of code to output to HTML. Because PHP is executed on the server, the client cannot view the PHP code.
    PHP can perform any task any CGI program can, but its strength lies in its compatibility with many types of databases. Also, PHP can talk across networks using IMAP, SNMP, NNTP, POP3 or HTTP.


PING (Packet Internet Groper)
An Internet program used to determine whether a specific IP address is accessible. It works by sending a packet to the specified address and waiting for a reply, then reporting how many hops are required to connect two Internet hosts. PING is used primarily to troubleshoot Internet connections. There are many freeware and shareware PING utilities available for personal computers.


pica
A printing industry unit of measurement. There are 12 points to a pica, one pica is approximately 0.166 in.


pixel
Short for Picture Element, a pixel is a single point in a graphic image. Graphics monitors display pictures by dividing the display screen into thousands (or millions) of pixels, arranged in rows and columns. The pixels are so close together that they appear connected.


platform
The type of computer or operating system on which a software application runs. For example, some common platforms are PC, Macintosh, Unix and NeXT. When someone knows more than one of these platforms or when a program can be used on more than one of these platforms, it is termed cross-platform.


plug-in
A plug-in is a software application that can be integrated into a browser in order to extend its playback capability.


PMS (Pantone Matching System)
A commonly used system for identifying specific ink colors.


point
The standard unit of type size of which there are 72 to the inch (one point is approximately 0.01383in). Point size is the measured from the top of the ascender to the bottom of the descender.


POP (Post Office Protocol)
POP refers to the protocol used by e-mail software, such as Eudora or Outlook Express, to retrieve electronic mail from a mail server. The protocol used by mail clients to retrieve messages from a mail server. This includes POP1, POP2, and POP3, the number denoting the different version number of the protocol. POP3 is the most common e-mail standard. POP is the protocol used by mail clients to retrieve messages from a mail server.
See Also: email, protocol, POP3


POP3
Short for Post Office Protocol, a protocol used to retrieve e-mail from a mail server. Most e-mail applications (sometimes called an e-mail client) use the POP protocol, although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol).
There are two versions of POP. The first, called POP2, became a standard in the mid-80's and requires SMTP to send messages. The newer version, POP3, can be used with or without SMTP.


port
1. A place where information goes into or out of a computer, or both. For instance, the serial port on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.

2. On the Internet, port often refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain name. Every service on an Internet server "listens" on a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers; Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so you might see a URL of the form: gopher://peg.cwis.uci.edu:7000/ which shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard gopher port is 70).

3. To port is to translate a piece of software to bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.


PostScript
A page description language developed by Adobe Systems. Widely supported by both hardware and software vendors it represents the current 'standard' in the market. Currently at Level 2.


PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
Communication protocol used over serial lines to support Internet connectivity.


primary colors
Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. These three colors when mixed together with black will produce a reasonable reproduction of all other colors.


proof
A copy obtained from inked type, plate, block or screen for checking purposes; a reasonably accurate sample of how a finished piece is intended to look. (See color proof.) Also, to check for consistency and accuracy.


protocol
Protocol is a set of rules governing behavior in certain situations. Foreign diplomats learn local protocol to ensure that they behave correctly in another country. The protocols ensure that there are no communication breakdowns or serious misunderstandings. Computers need protocols, too, to ensure that they can communicate with each other correctly and to ensure data is exchanged correctly. The Internet is made up of various protocols for various functions.


query
A question usually used in connection with a search engine or database to find a particular file, Web site, record or set of records in a database.


QuickTime®
A video and animation system developed by Apple Computer. QuickTime is built into the Macintosh operating system and is used by most Mac applications that include video or animation. PCs can also run files in QuickTime format, but they require a special QuickTime driver. QuickTime supports most encoding formats, including Cinepak, JPEG, and MPEG. QuickTime is competing with a number of other standards, including AVI and ActiveMovie.


RAID5
RAID is a way of storing the same data in different places by placing data on multiple hard disks. By placing data on multiple disks operations can overlap in a balanced way, improving performance.


RAM (Random-Access Memory)
Hardware inside your computer that retains memory on a short-term basis. This information is stored temporarily while you're working on it. RAM comes in several different forms:

DRAM - Dynamic Random-Access Memory A memory chip contained on such devices as video and sound cards. DRAM is "dynamic" because the chip contains an electrical charge (as opposed to SRAM, see below). The electrical charge will die out eventually so it must refresh its memory regularly, which it does automatically from your CPU. The only reason you need to know about DRAM is because it is related to access time and video cards, etc.

SRAM - Static Random-Access Memory SRAM is used for caching because it is a lot faster. This chip holds its contents without refreshing from the CPU.


RealAudio
RealNetworks' (formerly Progressive Networks) RealAudio client-server software system enables Internet and online users equipped with conventional multimedia personal computers and voice-grade telephone lines to browse, select and play back audio or audio-based multimedia content on demand, in real time. This is a real breakthrough compared to typical download times encountered with delivery of audio over conventional online methods with which audio is downloaded at a rate that is five times longer than the actual program.


RealMedia
A term encompassing RealNetworks' RealAudio and RealVideo


RealVideo
A streaming technology developed by RealNetworks (formerly Progressive Networks) for transmitting live video over the Internet. RealVideo uses a variety of data compression techniques and works with both normal IP connections as well as IP Multicast connections.


registration marks
Small cross-hairs on film used in the alignment of negatives.


Remember My Login
If you select this option you will not be prompted for your username and password when entering the site. This may not be secure if you are using a public or shared computer. Your computer must be set to accept cookies to use this feature.


remote terminal
It is possible to log in to a remote computer by using an application program based on TELNET - a terminal emulation protocol made for this purpose. The user can therefore enter commands on a keyboard attached to their local computer and access files, etc., on a remote computer that may be located anywhere in the world.


resolution
The measurement used in typesetting to express quality of output. Measured in dots per inch, the greater the number of dots, the more smoother and cleaner appearance the character/image will have. Currently laser printers print at 300-1,200 dpi. Imagesetters usually print at 1,270-5,080 dpi.


RGB (Red, Green, Blue)
The three colors of light which can be mixed to produce any other color. Colored images are often stored as a sequence of RGB triplets or as separate red, green and blue overlays, though this is not the only possible representation. These colors correspond to the three "guns" in a color cathode ray tube and to the color receptors in the human eye.


rollover
A portion of text or a graphics image that will swap out to an alternate text or graphics element as the mouse cursor is moved over it.


router
A device that connects any number of LANs. Routers use headers and a forwarding table to determine where packets go, and they use ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts. See also: switch


runaround
The ability within a program to run text around a graphic image within a document, without the need to adjust each line manually.


sans serif
A typeface that has no serifs (small strokes at the end of main stroke of the character). Helvetica, Geneva, and Arial are examples of sans-serif fonts.


search engine
A software application, commonly found on the web that enables the viewer to search the website or the internet for information related to specific keywords.


serif
A small cross stroke at the end of the main stroke of the letter.


server
A software application that provides (serves up) information requested by a software client.


SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
A metalanguage suitable for describing all kinds of markup languages, including HTML.


shopping cart
A shopping cart is a piece of software that acts as an online store's catalog and ordering process. Typically, a shopping cart is the interface between a company's website and its deeper infrastructure, allowing consumers to select merchandise; review what they have selected; make necessary modifications or additions; and purchase the merchandise.


spot color
Single colors applied to printing when process color is not necessary (i.e. one, two and three color printing), or when process colors need to be augmented (i.e. a fluorescent pink headline or a metallic tint).


SSI (Server-side Includes)
SSI tells a server to include information in a document before sending it to the browser. All directives to the server are formatted as SGML comments within the document. The simplest kind of SSI is a virtual include, which can use one command to pull HTML fragments, such as navigation bars, into all the pages of a site without having to hand code each page.


style sheet
A collection of tags specifying page layout styles, paragraph settings and type specifications which can be set up by the user and saved for use in other documents. Some page makeup programs, such as Ventura, come with a set of style sheets.


swatch
A color sample.


SWF (Shockwave Flash)
SWF is the file format used by Macromedia Flash to deliver graphics, animation and sound over the Internet.


switch
A networking device which can send packets directly to a port associated with a given network address. See also: router

SWOP (Specifications for Web Offset Publications)
A standard set of specifications for color separations, proofs, and printing to encourage uniform standards in the industry.


table
ables are utilized within a web page to create rows and columns and are usually used to align text and images.


tag
Text with special characters used to designate special formatting, display and handling codes.


tag
A tag is used to describe a type of command or instruction usually in regards to HTML or Web page code. HTML tags look like this: <p>, <br>, or <b>, always with a pair of brackets (<>) surrounding the specific instruction.


TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
A common, resolution-dependent format for interchanging digital information between applications, generally associated with grayscale or bitmap data.


thumbnails
The first ideas or sketches of a designer noted down for future reference.


tracking
Adjusting the letterspacing uniformly throughout a selected portion of text. See kerning.


trapping
A prepress technique which allows for variation in registration during the press run. This is done primarily by allowing an overlap between abutting colors.


UI (User Interface)
The method by which a user gives instructions to a computer and receives a response.


Unix
A general-purpose, multi-user, multitasking operating system invented by AT&T. UNIX is powerful and complex, and needs a computer with a large amount of RAM memory to support its power. UNIX allows a computer to handle multiple users and multiple programs simultaneously. And it works on many different computers, which means you can often take applications software and move it — with little changing — to a bigger, different computer, or to a smaller, different computer.


URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
The address for a website in a format that can be converted to a unique numerical address in order to locate the web server that contains the desired website.


vector graphics
Same as object-oriented graphics, refers to software and hardware that use geometrical formulas to represent images. The other method for representing graphical images is through bit maps, in which the image is composed of a pattern of dots. This is sometimes called raster graphics. Programs that enable you to create and manipulate vector graphics are called draw programs, whereas programs that manipulated bit-mapped images are called paint programs.
    Vector-oriented images are more flexible than bit maps because they can be resized and stretched. In addition, images stored as vectors look better on devices (monitors and printers) with higher resolution, whereas bit-mapped images always appear the same regardless of a device’s resolution. Another advantage of vector graphics is that representations of images often require less memory than bit-mapped images do.


widow
A single word left on the last line of a paragraph.


Windows NT
The most advanced version of the Windows operating system. Windows NT (New Technology) is a 32-bit operating system that supports preemptive multitasking.


WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)
Pronounced wizzy-wig. The appearance of a page layout that corresponds very closely to its printed out version or to a display format within another software application.


XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A specification developed by the W3C. XML is a pared-down version of SGML, designed especially for web documents. It allows designers to create their own customized tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations.


Yahoo!
A World Wide Web subject tree created by David Filo and Jerry Yang of the Department of Computer Science at Stanford University. With a keen eye for the popular as well as the useful, Filo and Yang have created a directory of Web resources that performs a reported 10 million searches across the World Wide Web a week.


ZV port
Short for zoomed video port, a port that enables data to be transferred directly from a PC Card to a VGA controller. The port is actually a connection to a zoomed video bus. This new bus was designed by the PCMCIA to enable notebook computers to connect to real-time multimedia devices such as video cameras. The first notebook computers with the ZV port arrived in late 1996.


 


Copyright © 2003 Seidel & Associates, Connie Seidel